Note from Josh: Help the Children

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God intended for children to be raised in “intact families.” Below is some of my research supporting this point.

If you are struggling in your marriage or family, please seek help for the sake of your children. Here are some organizations that I highly recommend.
Until the whole world hears about Jesus,

Josh D. McDowell

1. Emotional Health. Compared with peers from intact families, children who experienced parental divorce tend to experience more psychological and socio-emotional challenges.
(Paul R. Amato and Bruce Keith, ‘Parental Divorce and the Well-Being of Children: A Meta-Analysis,’ Psychological Bulletin 110, No. 1 (1991): 26-46.)
2. Antisocial Behavior. Adolescent living in intact families are less likely to engage in antisocial behavior.
(Robert Apel and Catherine Kaukinen, ‘On the Relationship between Family Structure and Antisocial Behavior: Parental Cohabitation and Blended Households,’ Criminology 46, No. 1 (2008): 35-70.)
3. Paternal Relationship. Family structure is related to youths’ relationships with their fathers.
(Christina Falci, ‘Family Structure, Closeness to Residential and Nonresidential Parents, and Psychological Distress in Early and Middle Adolescence,’ The Sociological Quarterly 47, (2006): 123-146.)
4. Emotional Distress. Adolescents who live in intact families are less likely to experience emotional or psychological problems.
(Christina Falci, ‘Family Structure, Closeness to Residential and Nonresidential Parents, and Psychological Distress in Early and Middle Adolescence,’ The Sociological Quarterly 47, (2006): 123-146.)
5. Juvenile Delinquency. Family structure is linked to the likelihood of youths’ delinquent behavior.
(Stephen Demuth and Susan L. Brown, ‘Family Structure, Family Processes, and Adolescent Delinquency: The Significance of Parental Absence versus Parental Gender,’ Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 41, No.1 (February 2004): 58-81.)
6. Substance Abuse. Youths whose parents divorced are more likely to use illicit drugs than peers from intact families.
(Shanta R. Dube, ‘Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction and the Risk of Illicit Drug Use: The Adverse Experiences Study,’ Pediatrics 111, (2003): 564-572.) (“Family and Adolescent Well-being”, Family Facts,, Accessed November 7, 2012)
7. School Performance. On average, compared with peers from intact families, adolescents living with a single mother or with mothers who were remarried or cohabiting experience more behavioral problems and lower levels of academic performance.
(Wendy Manning and Kathleen Lamb, ‘Adolescent Well-Being in Cohabitating, Married, and Single-Parent Families,’ Journal of Marriage and Family 65, (November 2003): 876-893.)
8. High-Risk Behavior. Parental divorce is associated with a greater likelihood of adolescents engaging in high-risk behavior.
(Kathleen B. Rodgers and Hillary A. Rose, ‘Risk and Resiliency Factors Among Adolescents Who Experience Marital Transitions,’ Journal of Marriage and the Family 64, No. 4 (2002): 1024-1037.)
9. Psychological Disorders. Family structure is related to the incidence of psychological disorders among adolescents.
(Steven P. Cuffe, Robert E. McKeown, Cheryl L. Addy, and Carol Z. Garrison, ‘Family and Psychosocial Risk Factors in a Longitudinal Epidemiological Study of Adolescents,’ Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44, No. 2 (February 2005): 121-129.)
10. Depression. Family structure is associated with the incidence of depression among youths.
(K. Breivik and D. Olweus, ‘Adolescent’s Adjustment in Four Post-Divorce Family Structures: Single Mother, Stepfather, Joint Physical Custody and Single Father Families,’ Journal of Divorce & Remarriage 44, No. 3-4 (2006): 99-124.)

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